Aug 31, 2010

Be a mentor.Build Self-Esteem.

                          You can't touch it, but it affects how you feel.
                          You can't see it, but it's there when you look at yourself in the mirror.
                          You can't hear it, but it's there every time you talk about yourself.
                          What is this important but mysterious thing?
                                             It's your self-esteem!
    • What Is Self-Esteem 
    • Why it is important
    • How to increase your esteem and self  confidence
    • Books and Articles you can read about self esteem 
       Knowing that Self-esteem should be taught to us since we crawl and as we get older we are developing our "self" , i added a more simple familiar text to be understood by all ages.
      • What Is Self-Esteem ?
                    To understand self-esteem, it helps to break the term into two words. Let's take a look at the word esteem (say: ess-teem) first. Esteem is a fancy word for thinking that someone or something is important or valuing that person or thing. For example, if you really admire your friend's dad because he volunteers at the fire department, it means you hold him in high esteem. And the special trophy for the most valuable player on a team is often called an esteemed trophy. This means the trophy stands for an important accomplishment.
             And self means, well, yourself! So put the two words together and it's easier to see what self-esteem is. It's how much you value yourself and how important you think you are. It's how you see yourself and how you feel about your achievements.
             Self-esteem isn't bragging about how great you are. It's more like quietly knowing that you're worth a lot (priceless, in fact!). It's not about thinking you're perfect — because nobody is — but knowing that you're worthy of being loved and accepted.
        Watch the Videos to see how  Media affects the teenagers :
               Self-esteem is a term used in psychology to reflect a person's overall evaluation or appraisal of his or her own worth. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs (for example, "I am competent" or "I am incompetent") and emotions such as triumph, despair, pride and shame. A person's self-esteem may be reflected in their behavior, such as in assertiveness, shyness, confidence or caution. Self-esteem can apply specifically to a particular dimension (for example, "I believe I am a good writer, and feel proud of that in particular") or have global extent (for example, "I believe I am a good person, and feel proud of myself in general").
        Psychologists usually regard self-esteem as an enduring personality characteristic ("trait" self-esteem), though normal, short-term variations ("state" self-esteem) also exist.
           Synonyms or near-synonyms of self-esteem include: self-worth, self-regard, self-respect, self-love (which can express overtones of self-promotion), and self-integrity. Self-esteem is distinct from self-confidence and self-efficacy, which involve beliefs about ability and future performance.
        • Why it is important?
                 Self-esteem isn't like a cool pair of sneakers that you'd love to have but don't have to have. A kid needs to have self-esteem. Good self-esteem is important because it helps you to hold your head high and feel proud of yourself and what you can do. It gives you the courage to try new things and the power to believe in yourself. It lets you respect yourself, even when you make mistakes. And when you respect yourself, adults and other kids usually respect you, too.
                 Having good self-esteem is also the ticket to making good choices about your mind and body. If you think you're important, you'll be less likely to follow the crowd if your friends are doing something dumb or dangerous. If you have good self-esteem, you know that you're smart enough to make your own decisions. You value your safety, your feelings, your health — your whole self! Good self-esteem helps you know that every part of you is worth caring for and protecting.

        A Little on Low Self-Esteem

                 For the purposes of empirical research, psychologists typically assess self-esteem by a self-report inventory yielding a quantitative result. They establish the validity and reliability of the questionnaire prior to its use. Researchers are becoming more interested in measures of implicit self-esteem.
           Whereas popular lore recognizes just "high" self-esteem and "low" self-esteem, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (1965) and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (1967/1981) both quantify it in more detail, and feature among the most widely used systems for measuring self-esteem.
        -The Rosenberg test usually uses a ten-question battery scored on a four-point response system that requires participants to indicate their level of agreement with a series of statements about themselves.
        -The Coopersmith Inventory uses a 50-question battery over a variety of topics and asks subjects whether they rate someone as similar or dissimilar to themselves.
                 Maybe you know kids with low self-esteem who don't think very highly of themselves or seem to criticize themselves too much. Or maybe you have low self-esteem and don't always feel very good about yourself or think you're important.
        Sometimes a kid will have low self-esteem if his mother or father doesn't encourage him enough or if there is a lot of yelling at home. Other times, a kid's self-esteem can be hurt in the classroom. A teacher may make a kid feel dumb or perhaps there is a bully who says hurtful things.
        For some kids, classes at school can seem so hard that they can't keep up or get the grades they'd hoped for. This can make them feel bad about themselves and hurt their self-esteem. Their self-esteem will improve when a teacher, tutor, or counselor encourages them, is patient, and helps them get back on track with learning. When they start to do well, their self-esteem will skyrocket!
        And some kids have good self-esteem but then something happens to change that. For example:
        • If a kid moves and doesn't make friends right away at the new school, he or she might start to feel bad.
        • Kids whose parents divorce also may find that this can affect self-esteem. They may feel unlovable or to blame for the divorce.
        • A kid who feels too fat or too thin may start thinking that means he or she isn't good enough.
        • A kid who's dealing with an illness, such as cancer, diabetes, or asthma, might feel different and less confident than before. 
        • Even going through the body changes of puberty — something that everybody does — can affect a kid's self-esteem.
        • How to Increase Your Self-Esteem?
              Of course it's OK to have ups and downs in your feelings, but having low self-esteem isn't OK. Feeling like you're not important can make you sad and can keep you from trying new things. It can keep you from making friends or hurt how you do at school.
        Having strong self-esteem is also a very big part of growing up. As you get older and face tough decisions — especially under peer pressure — the more self-esteem you have, the better. It's important to know you're worth a lot.
        If you think you might have low self-esteem, try talking to an adult you trust about it. He or she may be able to help you come up with some good ideas for building your self-esteem.
        In the meantime, here are a few things that you can try to increase your self-esteem:
        • Make a list of the stuff you're good at. It can be anything from drawing or singing to playing a sport or telling a good joke. If you're having trouble with your list, ask your mom or dad to help you with it. Then add a few things to the list that you'd like to be good at. Your mom or dad can help you plan a way to work on those skills or talents.
        • Give yourself three compliments every day. Don't just say, "I'm so great." Be specific about something good about yourself, like, "I was a good friend to Jill today" or "I did better on that test than I thought I would." While you're at it, before you go to bed every night, list three things in your day that really made you happy.
        • Remember that your body is your own, no matter what shape, size, or color it is. If you are worried about your weight or size, you can check with your doctor to make sure that things are OK. Remind yourself of things about your body that are cool, like, "My legs are strong and I can skate really well."
        • Remember that there are things about yourself you can't change. You should accept and love these things — such as skin color and shoe size — because they are part of you.
        • When you hear negative comments in your head, tell yourself to stop. When you do this, you take the power away from the voice inside that discourages you.
            By focusing on the good things you do and all your great qualities, you learn to love and accept yourself — the main ingredients for strong self-esteem! Even if you've got room for improvement (and who doesn't?) , realizing that you're valuable and important helps your self-esteem to shine.

        [The Dove Self-Esteem Fund - A Campaign for real beauty ]

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        Aug 29, 2010

        Positive talents that give rise to DYSLEXIA

        Table of Contents:

        • What is Dyslexia?
        • Is there any treatment?
        • What is the prognosis?
        • What research is being done?
        • Videos 
        • Clinical Trials
        • Organizations



        • What is Dyslexia?
         Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person's ability to read. These individuals typically read at levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, common characteristics among people with dyslexia are :
        *difficulty with spelling,  
        *phonological processing (the manipulation of sounds),
        *and/or rapid visual-verbal responding.

          In adults, dyslexia usually occurs after a brain injury or in the context of dementia. It can also be inherited in some families, and recent studies have identified a number of genes that may predispose an individual to developing dyslexia.

         Positive aspects of dyslexia:  Most books and web sites on dyslexia focus on difficulties with reading, writing and memory tasks. Dyslexic people often have strengths as well, such as:

                      The main focus of treatment should be on the specific learning problems of affected individuals. The usual course is to modify teaching methods and the educational environment to meet the specific needs of the individual with dyslexia.
          • What is the prognosis?
          For those with dyslexia, the prognosis is mixed. The disability affects such a wide range of people and produces such different symptoms and varying degrees of severity that predictions are hard to make. The prognosis is generally good, however, for individuals whose dyslexia is identified early, who have supportive family and friends and a strong self-image, and who are involved in a proper remediation program.
          • What research is being done?
          The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and other institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) support dyslexia research through grants to major medical institutions across the country. Current research avenues focus on developing techniques to diagnose and treat dyslexia and other learning disabilities, increasing the understanding of the biological basis of learning disabilities, and exploring the relationship between neurophysiological processes and cognitive functions with regard to reading ability.
          • Videos
          • NIH Patient Recruitment for Dyslexia Clinical Trials
          International Dyslexia Association
          40 York Road
          4th Floor
          Baltimore, MD   21204

          Tel: 410-296-0232 800-ABCD123
          Fax: 410-321-5069
          Learning Disabilities Association of America
          4156 Library Road
          Suite 1
          Pittsburgh, PA   15234-1349

          Tel: 412-341-1515
          Fax: 412-344-0224
          National Center for Learning Disabilities
          381 Park Avenue South
          Suite 1401
          New York, NY   10016

          Tel: 212-545-7510 888-575-7373
          Fax: 212-545-9665
          National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
          National Institutes of Health, DHHS
          31 Center Drive, Rm. 2A32 MSC 2425
          Bethesda, MD   20892-2425

          Tel: 301-496-5133
          Fax: 301-496-7101
          National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
          National Institutes of Health, DHHS
          6001 Executive Blvd. Rm. 8184, MSC 9663
          Bethesda, MD   20892-9663

          Tel: 301-443-4513/866-415-8051 301-443-8431 (TTY)
          Fax: 301-443-4279

          Related NINDS Publications and Information
                 NINDS health-related material is provided for information purposes only and does not necessarily represent endorsement by or an official position of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or any other Federal agency. Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician who has examined that patient or is familiar with that patient's medical history.
          All NINDS-prepared information is in the public domain and may be freely copied. Credit to the NINDS or the NIH is appreciated.
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          International Number Ones -Because every country is good at something

          *Check country database
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          Aug 26, 2010

          Book: >> Look Better Naked

          Look Better Naked: The Six Week Plan to Tighten, Tone, and Shapen Your Best Body Ever


          MICHELE PROMAULAYKO is editor-in-chief of Women’s Health, the fastest-growing women’s magazine in the country. She is an outspoken expert on women’s issues and has appeared on the Today show, CNN, Fox News, and The Tyra Banks Show.
          Hardcover, 320 pages
          Look Better Naked is a diet, exercise, beauty, and self-confidence plan from the editor-in chief of Women’s Health, the magazine that knows how to speak to women in a smart, inspiring way. The book offers expert tips and simple plans for reshaping a woman’s body quickly and easily. It reveals the powerfoods a woman should put on her plate every day and has a workout plan that delivers results in just 15 minutes a day. The plan also helps a woman:
          • flatten her belly
          • tone her legs
          • tighten her butt
          • improve her skin and hair
          A woman’s posture, her pride, her personal power —they all go together. Look Better Naked shows a woman how to be the best possible version of herself that she can be.
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          Aug 25, 2010

          Science of Sex Appeal....

          1.Science of Sex Appeal: Falling in Love
          Scientists use technology to research the difference between love and lust in the human brain. watch VIDEO

          2. Science of Sex Appeal: Biological Sex Appeal
          Is beauty really in the eye of the beholder, or does evolution play a role in what we find attractive in the opposite sex? Your genes may have more say over what you find attractive than you think.
          Sex appeal has been scientifically proven to be a biological imperative. Evolution controls our desires. Learn more about this enticing subject in Discovery Channel's "The Science of Sex Appeal." watch VIDEO 

          3. Science of Sex Appeal: Skin Signals
          Attractive Skin What role does skin play when it comes to sex appeal?
          Watch this experiment of skin attractiveness, and the signals the skin can send in this clip from Discovery Channel's "The Science of Sex Appeal."

          4. Science of Sex Appeal: Sexy Voices.
          A person's voice contributes to their overall sex appeal. What makes a voice attractive? Discover what qualities are most desired by the opposite sex in Discovery Channel's "The Science of Sex Appeal."  watch VIDEO

          5. Science of Sex Appeal: Unsexy Scents
          Discovery Channel (Canada)What's That Smell? Your sense of smell helps prevent you from mating with your relatives. Research has shown that a woman's sense of smell protects her from mating with a relative. Find out how in Discovery Channel's "The Science of Sex Appeal."  watch VIDEO

          6. Science of Sex Appeal: Mating for Life
          New research looks into why humans stick with a partner for life. Are humans biologically programmed to mate for life? Learn some of the surprises of human mating strategies in this video from Discovery Channel's "The Science of Sex Appeal." watch VIDEO
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          Aug 17, 2010

          ELLAONE - Longer-lasting "morning-after" pill to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex

                The prescription drug, called Ella, is made by French company HRA Pharma and will be sold in the United States by Watson Pharmaceuticals. Known chemically as ulipristal, the drug already is sold in several European countries under the name ellaOne. HRA Pharma has said it has also begun seeking approval in other countries.


            It is the first emergency contraceptive approved since a five-year battle under the Bush administration ended with limited over-the-counter sales and age checks by pharmacists for a rival pill.
                 Ella has been shown to prevent pregnancy for up to five days after unprotected sex.
                 Women's groups, Democrats and other advocates say the pills offer women much-needed options to plan their families and provide a safety net when other birth control methods fail or women are raped.
                 "Every woman deserves every option available to prevent an unplanned pregnancy, and there are many reasons why a woman may face the risk of unintended pregnancy -- from failure or improper use of birth control, to sexual assault," Cecile Richards, president of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, said in a statement.
                  Ella is a type of selective progesterone receptor modulator, making it part of a class of drugs that interfere with the hormone progesterone that is crucial for pregnancy. The class also includes the abortion pill known as RU-486, or mifepristone, and sold as Danco Laboratories' Mifeprex. 

                 Watson said the overall pregnancy rate for women who took Ella within three days of sex was 1.9 percent, lower than the anticipated rate of 5.6 percent. For women who took the drug two days to five days after sex, the pregnancy rate was 2.2 percent, lower than an expected rate of 5.5 percent. 

                  Company officials and the FDA have said Ella appears to work primarily by preventing the release of a woman's egg for up to five days after unprotected sex, although the lining of the uterus is also affected.
          Side effects of Ella
                -similar to those of Plan B, include headache, nausea, abdominal pain, pain/discomfort during menstruation (dysmenorrhea), fatigue, and dizziness. The drug should not be taken by women who are pregnant or nursing.
           The two emergency contraceptives work differently:

          •  Plan B contains levonorgestrel, a progestin hormone used in lower doses in many birth control pills.
          • Ella contains ulipristal, a non-hormonal drug that blocks the effects of key hormones necessary for conception.
          • Plan B should be taken as soon as possible after sex. It may work for up to 72 hours, but is ineffective once insemination triggers the hormonal surge that leads to ovulation.
          • While emergency contraception should not be delayed, Ella's effectiveness does not fade for 120 hours (five days) after sex, regardless of whether the hormonal surge has occurred.


          No interaction studies have been conducted. Ulipristal acetate is likely to interact with substrates of CYP3A4, like St John's wort or carbamazepine, but this might not be clinically relevant because only a single dose of the drug is taken.It might also interact with levonorgestrel and other substrates of the progesterone receptor, as well as with glucocorticoids.

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          Aug 14, 2010

          Personal hygiene Guide

          •  Personal hygiene is defined as a condition promoting sanitary practices to the self. Hygiene is the science concerned with the prevention of illness and maintenance of  health. 
             Cleansing of the skin is a complex interaction between the stratum corneum barrier, environmental dirt, body secretions, and a surfactant. Washing of the skin is the single most common cause of dermatologic disease, yet it is necessary in terms of personal hygiene and health.

          Personal hygiene is defined as a condition promoting sanitary practices to the self. Hygiene is the science concerned with the prevention of illness and maintenance of health. It is important to know, understand and practice good personal hygiene for as early as childhood to ensure a healthy lifestyle up until the stage of puberty and adulthood.
          I. HANDWASHING
          Hand washing is an easy way to prevent infection. It is a simple habit that can help keep you healthy. Learn the benefits of good hand hygiene, when to wash your hands and how to clean them properly.
           Hand washing is something most people do without thinking. Yet hand washing,when done properly, is one of the best ways to avoid getting sick. This simple habit requires only soap and warm water or an alcohol- based hand sanitizer — a cleanser that doesn't require water.
              1. To cleanse the hands of pathogens (including bacteria or viruses) and chemicals which can cause personal harm or disease.
              2. One good way to prevent transfer of infectious diseases that are commonly spread through hand-to-hand contact and contact with fomites (doorknobs) including the common cold, flu and several gastrointestinal disorders, such as infectious diarrhea. 
              3. Inadequate hand hygiene contributes to food-related illnesses, such as salmonella and E. coli infection. 
          •Wet your hands with warm, running water and apply liquid soap or use clean bar soap. Lather well.
          •Rub your hands vigorously together for at least 15 to 20 seconds.
          •Scrub all surfaces, including the backs of your hands, wrists, between your fingers and under your fingernails.
          •Rinse well.
          •Dry your hands with a clean or disposable towel.
          •Use a towel to turn off the faucet. 
          II. ORAL CARE 
          Get daily dental care tips and learn ways to protect your oral health. See which symptoms should prompt a call to your dentist. Don't take your smile for granted. Maintain good oral health by practicing regular dental care habits and reporting problems to your dentist promptly.
               1.  Prevents losing your teeth and gives you a wide good smile.
             2. Cleaning your teeth daily and visiting your dentist one to two times a year
          prevents gum disease and other oral health problems. 
          • Brush your teeth at least twice a day and ideally after every meal, using fluoride-containing toothpaste.
          • Use a soft-bristled toothbrush — it's gentler on your gums.
          • To brush properly, hold your toothbrush at a slight angle against your teeth and use short back-and-forth motions.
          • Brush the inside and chewing surfaces of your teeth.
          • Brush your teeth for about two minutes each time you brush.
          • Brush your tongue.
          • Avoid vigorous or harsh scrubbing, which can irritate your gums.
          • Replace your toothbrush every three or four months, or sooner if it become frayed. 
          III. HAIR AND NAILS 
            The hair follicles (which the hair grows from) produce oil which keeps the hair smooth. You also have sweat glands in your scalp, and dead skin cells come off the scalp. The oil, sweat and dead cells all add together and can make the hair greasy and look dirty unless you wash it regularly. 
              1.  Gains good impression from other people especially the peers.
             2.  Prevents acquiring of infestations and different parasitic organisms.
             3.  Cut nails helps to avoid a perfect environment for germs to live and breed.
           4. Wearing nail polish adds color and style to your nails but may harbor microorganisms and maybe harmful to health.
             5.  Nail biting must not be practiced even if hands have been washed.
          •Wash hair regularly with shampoo (cheap ones are often as good as very expensive ones).
          •massage your scalp well. This will remove dead skin cells, excess oil and dirt.
          •rinse well with clear water.
          •conditioner is helpful if you have longer hair as it makes the hair smoother and easier to comb, but hair doesn't need to have conditioner.
          •a shorter hair and avoiding prolonged exposure to the sun would minimize damage to the hair and acquiring of nits.
          •use a wide toothed comb for wet hair as it is easier to pull through.
          •Cut nails once a week. Best time would be after taking a bath. 
             According to the experts young kids may sweat but they don't start having body odour (BO) until they reach puberty. That's when special sweat glands under the arms and around the genitals roar into full production pouring out sweat which smells!
             Even if you're not heavily into puberty style sweating, clothes can get stained, dirty and generally grubby, so you need to change them often. 
            Underclothes are right next to your skin and collect dead skin cells, sweat and possibly other unmentionable stains. Overnight bacteria start to work on these stains so your clothes do not smell as nice on the second day of wearing.
          1. Prevents body odor.
          2. Helps refresh the body and the mind.
          3. Prevents acquiring pimples and having oily face.
          4. Gives a good impression from other people.

          •Take a bath everyday or after periods of sweats or getting dirty.
          •May use scented body soaps but germ-free soaps are more effective in giving a sure clean. After washing with soap and completely drying, immediately apply an underarm antiperspirant. Remember, deodorants do not prevent sweating. They mainly mask the smell of the bacteria on your sweaty skin. Antiperspirants are chemical agents that reduce sweating. 
              Many antiperspirant preparations also contain a deodorant, which helps to mask the smell. Check the product you use to make sure it contains an antiperspirant. 
              Keep your underarms dry. Bacteria have a hard time breeding in dry areas of the body.Shaving your underarm regularly will help prevent the accumulation of bacteria and can reduce sweat and odor.
              If you have excessive sweating (called hyperhidrosis), talk to your doctor. There are many treatment options for those with more severe sweating who desire more permanent treatments. Also, certain medical problems can lead to excessive sweating. Your doctor can make a diagnosis and prescribe treatment.
          •Scrub off thoroughly especially the elbows, knees and armpit parts. 
          •Use a separate facial wash for the face.
          •Rinse well.
          •Change clothes every after bathing or when soaked with sweat.
          •Clean the ears after every bath.
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          Automutilation / Self Immolation as Protest

                    Refugee protest is some of the most desperate, dramatic and spectacular.
          Instances of self-immolation, slow public starvation, and riotous violence are not rare, but public response and research has been limited at best. Simultaneously, it can be quiet, unnoticed, isolated, lonely - late night solitary suicides and disappearance from institutional routine. Coping with the harsh conditions of life in exile, institutional and otherwise, is an inherent component of the refugee experience - and a component that, as trends toward restrictive asylum policy grow, increasingly incorporates protest. 
                   Resistance in exile has become a tool of refugee identity, a vehicle through which feelings of empowerment can be achieved, cultural values can be maintained, a sense of worth can be created, and, perhaps most importantly, a feeling of movement, some sense of  forward momentum, can be realized in what are often prolonged, stifling,powerless situations of physical and emotional limbo. Even the act of becoming a refugee, one could argue, is itself an act of resistance - a counter measure to increasingly hostile and unbearable conditions.
          Eg. of  few cases of manifestations religion related :

          Case #1    [Eyes Wide Shut ] 

           London - A refugee from Iran granted asylum in Britain has stitched up his eyes, mouth and ears after the Home Office said it would appeal against a decision to allow him to stay in the country, said his supporters.
          Abas Amini, 33, who lives in Nottingham in central England, had taken the action, as he feared he would be in danger of his life if he were deported to his home country, they said.
          Chris Udenze, a doctor visiting him, said Amini was thinking rationally and knew the consequences of his actions, but feared he would be executed if he returned to Iran.
          "He is very weak and dehydrated through not drinking anything for several days. He will rapidly deteriorate if he doesn't take any fluids, and he is quite clear that he actually wants to die," said Udenze.
                 Tania Branigan, a journalist who has been following his case, told the BBC that Amini's claims of torture were genuine. "He's actually a fairly well-known political poet. He's also been a Communist guerrilla for many years, since his early teens in fact, and has been in and out of prison for much of his life - has been tortured repeatedly," she said.
                Amini fled jail in Iran for Britain two years ago, where he applied for asylum.
          Case # 2      [Christians held a three-day protest over a Catholic who died after setting himself ablaze in despair after his wife was allegedly tortured by police].

                  Rashid Masih, a father of four, died in hospital on March 22,2010 four days after dousing himself in kerosene and setting himself alight.
                  Masih had tried to prove his wife’s innocence and is said to have cried all night before setting himself on fire, Church sources say.
              Church sources here say he was overwhelmed by a sense of hopelessness after his wife, a housemaid, was charged with stealing from a Muslim cinema manager in Rawalpindi and tortured by police in front of him. Their version of events contradicted reports in the secular Italian media and L’Osservatore Romano, the Vatican daily, which said the man had been burnt to death by a Muslim.

          The mourners chanted anti-Punjab government slogans, demanding “payback for the blood” and the arrest of those they blamed for the death.
          We are not against anyone but demand justice,” Father Anwar Patras, parish priest of Holy Family Catholic Church, told the funeral gathering.
          Father Patras called for ecumenical unity in the case. “Rashid’s sacrifice has provided us a stage where we can all unite,” the priest said at the funeral.
              His wife was in shock and unable to respond to questions from the media at the cemetery.

          Case # 3[Self immolation of a widow]    

          SATI (Self-Immolation by a Widow) - India's Best Kept Secret
          Can anyone imagine burning a young girl or Women in public infront of a crowd with her husband's dead body in this century?
               This is especially evident in the reactions that occurred in 1987 when Roop Kanwar, a well-educated eighteen-year-old girl from the Rajput caste, decided to be burned alive on her husband's funeral pyre, though they were only married for eight months. Varying accounts exist of the incident suggesting that Roop Kanwar may have been forced into self-immolation and she was possibly drugged. In any case, the incident aroused considerable upheaval throughout India and forced the country to re-evaluate the status of women.That one would voluntarily commit sati in the twentieth century is very difficult to comprehend for Westerners and many Indians.

              Under stridharma, the dharma of women entails devotion to one's husband. A woman's career is her husband. This means a woman's obligation in life is to serve her husband and provide him with children, especially sons. He is essentially her ?lord? for the very meaning of the word husband (Pati) means both husband and lord. In addition, she worships him by eating his leftovers. This may also be a sign of respect.

                   Though the origin of sati is questionable, Megasthenes, the Greek chronicler recorded cases of sati as early as the fourth century B.C. There is also documentation of cases in which widows self-immolated but these have been classified as jauhar. In this case, jauhar was reserved for queens in the context of war and defeat. Usually, the queens of Rajput kings would self-immolate on a pyre without their husbands because they were believed to be dead. Also, one of the purposes of jauhar was to avoid being kidnapped by the victors. Nevertheless, incidents of sati were recorded during the succeeding periods. Argument that the Rig Veda sanctions sati
          It is often claimed that this most ancient text sanctions or prescribes sati. This is based on verse 10.18.7, part of the verses to be used at funerals. Whether they even describe sati or something else entirely, is disputed,  The hymn is about funeral by burial, and not by cremation.

              There are differing translations of the passage. The translation below is one of those said to prescribe it.
             Let these women, whose husbands are worthy and are living, enter the house with ghee (applied) as collyrium (to their eyes). Let these wives first step into the pyre, tearless without any affliction and well adorned.

              Rise, come unto the world of life, O woman - come, he is lifeless by whose side thou liest.      Wifehood with this thy husband was thy portion, who took thy hand and wooed thee as a lover.
              A reason given for the discrepancy in translation and interpretation of verse 10.18.7, is that one consonant in a word that meant house, yonim agre "foremost to the yoni", was deliberately changed by those who wished claim scriptural justification, to a word that meant fire, yomiagne.
          INDIAN Government is trying its best to avoid and abolish all these false believes and practices.But it is mostly in the hands of the individuals.
          Case # 4 [ The Butterfly Lovers]  by Liang Zhu
          The story of Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai provides an example of suicide used as last resort to protest and escape a reality that people feel powerless to change. Although fictional, the story and its enduring popularity reflect Chinese social attitudes toward suicide both at
          that time and in the present. Zhu Yingtai, a young lady eager to explore the world,
          was born to a rich but conservative family during Eastern Jin Dynasty (A.D. 317–420). Under the feudal system, schools barred girls from admission.As a result, Zhu and her maid had to disguise themselves as boys in order for Zhu to receive an education. Zhu eventually met Liang Shanbo at school, and they became good friends, eventually becoming lovers when Liang discovered
          that Zhu was a girl. Zhu’s father had already arranged a marriage for his daughter, and rejected the couple’s repeated entreaties because Liang was not a rich or powerful man.The
          heart-broken Liang finally died of sorrow and illness. Grief-stricken, Zhu visited Liang’s grave before her wedding. While she wept, the tomb suddenly opened, and Zhu jumped inside and ended her life in order to be with Liang forever.Afterwards a pair of butterflies emerged from the tomb, signifying that Liang and Zhu would never be parted again. 

                  "People who have the power and resources to make choices and changes in their lives are usually also able to express their views in a variety of moderate and socially acceptable ways. For those who lack the power or resources to address the sources of their discontent, however, suicide may provide a last resort". -Si-Si Liu, "Suicide as Protest"
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          Aug 11, 2010

          Birth Control Methods -Intrauterine Devices (IV)

          Intrauterine Devices


          Mirena IntraUterine SystemAlthough the intrauterine device (IUD) is a highly effective method of contraception, it is used by less than 2% of American women of reproductive age. The reason for such a small percentage stems from the withdrawal of FDA-approved IUDs in the 1970s. The Dalkon Shield IUD was withdrawn because of a series of litigations related to septic abortion deaths. The manufacturers withdrew their product because the cost of defending the lawsuits was deemed too expensive.Until as recently as 2000, the only 2 IUDs available in the United States were the Copper T380 (Pregna International; Mumbai, India) and the progesterone-releasing form, Progestasert (Alza; Mountain View, Calif). In December 2000, the FDA approved another form of IUD, the levonorgestrel intrauterine system termed Mirena (Berlex Laboratories; Montville, NJ). More than 2 million women in Europe have used this form of contraception in the past decade with great success.

          Birth Control Methods - Hormonal Contraceptives (III)

          Hormonal Contraceptives


          The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the contraceptive use of levonorgestrel implants (Norplant) in 1990. This method consists of 6 silicone rubber rods, each measuring 34 mm long and 2.4 mm in diameter and each containing 36 mg of levonorgestrel. The implant releases approximately 80 mcg of levonorgestrel per 24 hours during the first year of use, achieving effective serum concentrations of 0.4-0.5 ng/mL within the first 24 hours. The rate of release decreases to an average of 30 mcg/d in the latter years of use. Release of the progestational agent by diffusion provides effective contraception for 5 years. Contraceptive protection begins within 24 hours of insertion if inserted during the first week of the menstrual cycle. The rods are inserted subcutaneously, usually in the woman's upper arm, where they are visible under the skin and can be easily palpated.1,2
          The mechanism of action is a combination of suppression of the LH surge, suppression of ovulation, development of viscous and scant cervical mucus to deter sperm penetration, and prevention of endometrial growth and development.
          The contraceptive efficacy of the method is equivalent to that of surgical sterilization. Overall, pregnancy rates increase from 0.2% in the first year to 1.1% by the fifth year.
          The longevity of its effectiveness is an advantage. Its effectiveness is not related to its use in regards to coitus. Exogenous estrogen is absent. Prompt return to the previous state of fertility occurs upon removal. No adverse effect on breast milk production occurs.
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