Sep 30, 2010

The "Ames" Optical Illusion

 Ames room is a distorted room that is used to create an optical illusion. Probably influenced by the writings of Hermann Helmholtz, it was invented by American ophthalmologist Adelbert Ames, Jr. in 1934, and constructed in the following year.

An Ames room is constructed so that from the front it appears to be an ordinary cubic-shaped room, with a back wall and two side walls parallel to each other and perpendicular to the horizontally level floor and ceiling. 

Sep 29, 2010

What are Human Rights?

 Universal Declaration of Human Rights


Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,
Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

Libido and Aphrodisiacs (II)

 II. Aphrodisiacs

=are any of various forms of stimulation thought to arouse sexual excitement. Aphrodisiacs may be classified in two principal groups:

  • (1) psycho-physiological (visual, tactile, olfactory, aural)
  • (2) internal (stemming from food, alcoholic drinks, drugs, love potions, medical preparations).
      Despite long-standing literary and popular interest in internal aphrodisiacs, almost no scientific studies of them have been made. Scientific research is limited to occasional tests of drugs or hormones for the cure of male impotence. Most writings on the subject are little more than unscientific compilations of traditional or folkloric material. Of the various foods to which aphrodisiac powers are traditionally attributed, fish, vegetables, and spices have been the most popular throughout history. In none of these foods, however, have any chemical agents been identified that could effect a direct physiological reaction upon the genitourinary tract, and it must be concluded that the reputation of various supposedly erotic foods is based not upon fact but upon folklore.
         It has been suggested that man’s universal attribution of libidinous effects to certain foods originated in the ancient belief in the therapeutic efficacy of signatures: if an object resembled the genitalia, it possessed, so it was reasoned, sexual powers. Thus the legendary aphrodisiac powers of ginseng root and powdered rhinoceros horn.
         With the exception of certain drugs such as alcohol or marijuana, which may lead to sexual excitation through disinhibition, modern medical science recognizes a very limited number of aphrodisiacs.


Libido is clearly linked to levels of sex hormones, particularly testosterone. When a reduced sex drive occurs in individuals with relatively low levels of testosterone (e.g., post-menopausal women or men over age 60 ) ,testosterone supplements will often increase libido. Approaches using a number of precursors intended to raise testosterone levels have been effective in older males, but have not fared well when tested on other groups.

Sep 28, 2010

Libido and Aphrodisiacs (I)

I. Libido 

  • what is libido
  • why it is low
  • how we can improve it
Libido is the term that the noted founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, used to label the sexual drive or sexual instinct. He noted that the sexual drive is characterized by a gradual buildup to a peak of intensity, followed by a sudden decrease of excitement.
As he studied this process in his patients, Freud concluded that various activities like eating and drinking, as well as urination and defecation share this common pattern. Consequently, he regarded these behaviors as sexual or libidinous as well.
         Freud also became interested in the development of the libido, which he saw as the basic and most powerful human drive. He believed that the development of the libido involved several distinct and identifiable stages.
Learn more about Freud's theory on how libido develops in the next section.
  • During infancy, he noted, sexual drive is focused on the mouth, primarily manifested in sucking.

Sep 27, 2010

REM and NREM Sleep

  • Overview
    Normal sleep has 2 distinct states:
  1. non-rapid eye movement (NREM)
  2. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.   
NREM sleep is divided into 4 stages.During REM sleep, rapid eye movements occur,
  •  breathing becomes irregular, 
  • blood pressure rises, 
  • and there is loss of muscle tone (paralysis). However, the brain is highly active, and the electrical activity recorded in the brain by EEG during REM sleep is similar to that recorded during wakefulness. REM sleep is usually associated with dreaming. REM sleep accounts for 20-25% of the sleep period.
In a person with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), the paralysis that normally occurs during REM sleep is incomplete or absent, allowing the person to "act out" his or her dreams. RBD is characterized by the acting out of dreams that are vivid, intense, and violent. Dream-enacting behaviors include talking, yelling, punching, kicking, sitting, jumping from bed, arm flailing, and grabbing. An acute form may occur during withdrawal from alcohol or sedative-hypnotic drugs.
RBD is usually seen in middle-aged to elderly people (more often in men).

  • REM Sleep Disorder Causes
The exact cause of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is unknown, although the disorder may occur in association with various degenerative neurological conditions such as Parkinson disease, multisystem atrophy, diffuse Lewy body dementia, and Shy-Drager syndrome. In 55% of persons the cause is unknown, and in 45%, the cause is associated with alcohol or sedative-hypnotic withdrawal, tricyclic antidepressant (such as imipramine), or serotonin reuptake inhibitor use (such as fluoxetine, sertraline, or paroxetine) or other types of antidepressants (mirtazapine).

Sep 26, 2010

Facts about Hangover .Cures from around the world.

       Hangover:  A common non medical term for the disagreeable physical effects following excessive consumption of alcohol (or the use of other drugs).
Veisalgia is the little-used medical name for the condition. It is also called a Spanish headache.
Hangovers been known since Biblical times (or before): "Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink" (Isaiah 5:11). Here are a few post-biblical facts that may help prevent or reduce the dreaded symptoms of an hangover from too much alcohol!
  1. First of all, it is important to realize that many researchers disagree on what may be the exact cause of the syndrome. Some feel that certain by-products that come from the liver's breakdown of alcohol may be responsible, others have postulated that "toxins" such as methanol found in high quantities in some drinks are responsible.
  2. Second, to combat this unwanted side effect, it has been suggested that we eat foods rich in cysteine, such as eggs. The cysteine is used by the liver when it processes or metabolizes alcohol; therefore building back up this chemical may help.
  3. Third, another reasonable approach is to be sure to drink lots of water, since alcohol tends to dehydrate the body and brain. Some of the electrolyte rich drinks can also be of value.
  4. Lastly, blood sugar levels can decrease after alcohol use, so some extra sugar is advised by some experts.

Sep 22, 2010

Psychedelic LSD effects on Fish Poisoning - ICHTHYOALLEINOTOXISM

     Also known as fish poisoning, Ichthyoallyeinotoxism comes from the Greek terms "Ichthy-" (fish) ,
 " aluein" (to be out of oneself , to hallucinate ) and "toxikon" (venom). It is used to denote a rare hallucinogenic intoxication due to the consumption of the head or other body parts of a fish belonging to a group of  Dream Fish , many species which are indigenous to the Indian and Pacific Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Because of their psychoactive effects, such fish species are refereed to as psychoactive fauna .
      Ichthyoallyeinotoxism is classified as a variant of ichthyosarcotoxism ,i.e food poisoning caused by the ingestion of fish. The symptoms typically commence within few minutes to 2h after the consumption  and they ussually last no longer than 36 hours. Ichthyoallyeinotoxism is characterized by generalized malaise, and a variety of CNS disturbances coordination, vivid visual and /or  auditory hallucinations, nightmares, and sometimes frank delirium.The hallucinations occurring in the context of ichthyoallyeinotoxism are sometimes compared to the those occurring in  LSD intoxication.The toxin/-s responsible for the medication of ichthyoallyeinotoxism are unknown. As all ichthyoallyeinotoxism fish appear to be algal grazers , it is believed that they may derived their hallucinogenic properties from alkaloids of the indole group which are chemically quite similar to LSD, and which occur naturally in certain types of algae and phytoplankton.  It has also been suggested that ichthyoallyeinotoxism may be mediated by Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) ,a hallucinogenic even more potent than the indoles present in  fish.

Sep 20, 2010

Healthy Sugar Alternatives

  • Glucose  Glucose is the simple sugar made by the body through digestion of carbohydrates. It is the body's chief source of energy. Sometimes glucose is called dextrose.
  • Sucrose Sucrose is what we commonly refer to as table sugar. It is made from highly processed sugar cane or sugar beets. The composition of sucrose is a combination of glucose and fructose, which separates during digestion. Pure sucrose is devoid of any nutrients.

    • Fructose

    Fructose, commonly called fruit sugar, is a simple sugar found in honey, tree fruits, berries, and melons. But don't be fooled into thinking fructose on a label means you are eating fruit sugar. Pure crystalline fructose comes from two sources: corn or sucrose (table sugar). Corn starch is processed to release fructose. Sucrose (table sugar) is enzymatically hydrolyzed to separate into glucose and fructose. Crystalline fructose is pure fructose from one of these two sources.

    Sep 18, 2010

    International holidays and observances -September 2010

    Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat

    1 2 3 4
    5 6
    Labor Day *
    7 8 9
    Jewish Rosh Hashanah/
    Feast of Trumpets
    (starts on the eve before)
    Eid ul-Fitr
    Patriot Day
    Grandparents Day
    13 14 15 16
    Stepfamily Day
    Constitution Day and Week
    Jewish Yom Kippur
    19 20 21
    International Day of Peace
    22 23
    First Day of AutumnJewish Sukkot
    Native American Day
    Gold Star Mother's Day
    27 28 29 30

    Let's talk about STDs - Herpes Genitalis (III)

    Common names:
    • Genital Herpes
    • Herpes Genitalis
    • Herpes Groin
    • Herpes Simplex Type 2  
     What Is Genital Herpes?

    Genital herpes is an infection of the *genitals, *buttocks, or *anal area caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Most genital herpes is caused by HSV type 2. Yet as people begin to have sex at younger ages the herpes type 1 virus has increasingly been shown to also cause genital herpes.  Photos
    Genital herpes is a highly contagious infection usually spread through intercourse, but it can be passed through oral or anal sex as well. Learn about it in this sexual health article.
    • Are You at Risk?   

    Sep 14, 2010

    Let's talk about Sexually Transmitted Diseases (I)

     (STIs) Sexually transmitted infections/diseases  are a major global cause of  
    It's a Scary World: How to Be Sexually Active While Staying Healthy, Safe and Free of Sexually Transmitted Diseases                    *acute illness, 
                        * infertility,
                        *long-term disability and   
                        *death, with severe medical and psychological consequences for millions of men, women and infants.STIs are spread primarily through person-to-person sexual contact.
           There are over 30 different sexually transmissible bacteria, viruses and parasites. Several STIs, particularly HIV and syphilis, can be transmitted through blood products and tissue transfer, and from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth.
                 Symptoms of STIs may be
        -mild and transient,
        - acute(as with gonorrhoea, chancroid, herpes simplex virus).
          Many STIs can have severe long-term consequences. In adults, chlamydia and gonorrhoea may lead to complications such as infertility, chronic illness and potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy. Chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis can produce serious and often life-threatening conditions in fetuses and newborn babies, such as congenital syphilis, pneumonia and low birth weight. Infection with human papillomavirus is a proven precondition for the development of carcinoma of the cervix, which is the second leading cause of female cancer mortality worldwide.
    Some of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens can be divided into bacteria, viruses and parasites.

    Common bacteria

      Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
    • Neisseria gonorrhoeae (causes gonorrhoea or gonococcal infection)
    • Chlamydia trachomatis (causes chlamydial infections)
    • Treponema pallidum (causes syphilis)
    • Haemophilus ducreyi (causes chancroid)
    • Klebsiella granulomatis (previously known as Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, causes granuloma inguinale or donovanosis)

    Common viruses

    • HIV (causes AIDS)
    • Herpes simplex virus type 2 (causes genital herpes)
    • Human papillomavirus (causes genital warts and certain subtypes lead to cervical cancer in women)
    • Hepatitis B virus (causes hepatitis and chronic cases may lead to cancer of the liver)
    • Cytomegalovirus (causes inflammation in a number of organs including the brain, eye and bowel)


    • Trichomonas vaginalis (causes vaginal trichomoniasis)
    • Candida albicans (causes vulvovaginitis in women and inflammation of the glans penis and foreskin in men)
    Enhanced by Zemanta

    Sep 7, 2010

    Sep 4, 2010

    Let's talk about Sexually transmitted Diseases (II)

        * When to seek Medical Care 
        * Prevention

            When to seek Medical Care
          TEENS, SEX & HEALTH - A Comprehensive Approach to Sexual Education
            A medical examination may be necessary if a person believes he or she may have an STD or if he or she may have been exposed to someone with an STD. Being seen by a doctor as soon as possible after exposure to an STD is important; these infections can easily spread to others and can have serious complications.
          Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...